Researchers at Harvard SEAS, the University of Illinois and the University of Pittsburgh have received a USD$855,000 grant from the United States Army Research Office to further look into and develop ’4D printing’ of functionally adaptive materials.
Imagine a garment that could respond to lighting changes to alter its colour and pattern. Imagine a vehicle with a coating on its body that adapts to environmental conditions.
A trio of university researchers from the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the University of Illinois and the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering propose to evolve Skylar Tibbits (@SkylarTibbits) 4D printing breakthrough: 3D printing materials that can exhibit behavioural changes through the traditional fourth dimension, time.
“Rather than construct a static material or one that simply changes its shape, we’re proposing the development of adaptive, biomimetic composites that reprogram their shape, properties or functionality on demand, based upon external stimuli,” says principal investigator Anna C. Balazs, Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh, who studies the computational design of chemo-mechanically responsive gels and composites. “By integrating our abilities to print precise, three-dimensional, hierarchically-structured materials, synthesize stimuli-responsive components and predict the temporal behaviour of the system, we expect to build the foundation for the new field of 4D printing.”
Co-Principle Investigator Jennifer A. Lewis, Professor of Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard SEAS and expert in 3D printing functional materials, explains that current 3D printing technology facilitates complex functionality at nano and micro levels within specific areas of a structure. “If you use materials that possess the ability to change their properties or shape multiple times, you don’t have to build for a specific, one-time use,” she says. “Composites that can be reconfigured in the presence of different stimuli could dramatically extend the reach of 3D printing.”
As the research will utilise responsive fillers embedded within a stimuli-responsive hydrogel, the third principle investigator, Ralph G. Nuzzo – Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Illinois, a synthetic chemist who has created novel stimuli-responsive materials – says this opens new routes for producing the next generation of smart sensors, coatings, textiles and structural components:
“The ability to create one fabric that responds to light by changing its colour, and to temperature by altering its permeability, and even to an external force by hardening its structure, becomes possible through the creation of responsive materials that are simultaneously adaptive, flexible, lightweight and strong. It’s this ‘complicated functionality’ that makes true 4D printing a game changer.”
Table of contents:
- What is 3D printing?
- 3D printing technologies
- 3D Printing history
- 3D printing applications
- What is a 3D printer?
- Whats the difference between rapid prototyping machine and a 3D printer?
- What can you make with a 3D printer?
- Who make 3D printers?
- How much cost a 3D printer?
- How to build a 3D printer?
- What are the materials used to print 3D objects?
- What 3D modeling software is suitable for a beginner in 3D design?
- I have no 3D design experience, how long does it take to learn 3D modeling?
- Where can I get 3D models online?
- Where can I find online 3D printing service?
1. What is 3D printing?
3D printing is also known as desktop fabrication or additive manufacturing, it is a prototyping process whereby an real object is created from a 3D design. The digital 3D-model is saved in STL format and then sent to a 3D printer. The 3D printer then print the design layer by layer and form a real object. Read more..
This video describe how laser-sintering process melt fine powders, bit by bit, into 3D shapes.
2. 3D printing technologies
Quite a few technologies are capable to do 3D printing. The main differences are how layers are built to create parts.
SLS (selective laser sintering), FDM (fused depostion modeling) & SLA (stereolithograhpy) are the most widely used technologies for 3D printing. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM) use melting or softening material to produce the layers.
This video describe how laser-sintering process melt fine powders, bit by bit, into 3D shapes.
The video belows explains the process of Stereolithography (SLA).
Generally, the main considerations are speed, cost of the printed prototype, cost of the 3D printer, choice and cost of materials and colour capabilities.
3. The history of 3D printing
October 5, 2011 – Roland DG Corporation introduced the new iModela iM-01.
Sep, 2011 – Vienna University of Technology, a smaller, lighter and cheaper printing device has now been developed.
This smallest 3D printer weighs 1.5 kilograms, it costs around 1200 Euros.
Aug, 2011 – The world’s first 3D printed aircraft created by Engineers at the University of Southampton.
3D printers are awesome, but boy are they frustrating. If you’ve built a RepRap Mendel, Prusa or Huxely, you know there’s nothing quite like trying to get a washer off of a threaded rod without disassembling the entire machine. This frustration in part sourcing, assembling and correctly aligning a printer is where printers like the Makerbot find their niche. There’s a new printer on the block that promises a 45 minute assembly time and less than 2 hours from starting the build to first print. It will do all this for under $500, electronics and motors included.
From the Flickr photoset, we can see that the Printrbot has 2 motors for the z-axis, uses sanguinololu electronics, and uses a derivative of Wade’s extruder – all proven design choices. Unlike the RepRaps, most of the frame is actually printed, and not built out of threaded rods. This drastically reduces the assembly and calibration time.
The inventor of the Printrbot, [Brook Drumm], has a Kickstarter up where he’s selling complete kits (electronics, motors and vitamins) for $499. This beats the very inexpensive SUMPOD in affordability. We haven’t been able to find the 3D design files for the Printrbot (although you can buy these printed parts for $75), and there’s no word on the build volume of the stock printer. That being said, the printrbot does have pretty good resolution. Check out the video of a Printrbot in action after the break.
This is the new SainSmart 3D Printer Starter Kit, developed specially for those beginners who are interested in 3D printer. You will have a complete set of SainSmart’s most common and useful electronic components. What’s more. We will offer you a detailed tutorials including project introduction and their source codes.You may learn about Sainsmart through using these basic projects.
1.Sainsmart RAMPS 1.4
It is a Mega Pololu Shield, or RAMPS for short,designed to fit the entire electronics needed for a RepRap in one small package for low cost. RAMPS interfaces an Arduino Mega with the powerful Arduino MEGA platform and has plenty room for expansion. The modular design includes plug in stepper drivers and extruder control electronics on an Arduino MEGA shield for easy service, part replacement, upgrade-ability and expansion. Additionally, a number of Arduino expansion boards can be added to the system as long as the main RAMPS board is kept to the top of the stack. This board is mostly based on Adrian’s Pololu_Electronics and work by Tonok. Copper etch resists methods suggested by Vik. Also inspired by Vik’s work with EasyDrivers. circuit design based mostly on Adrian’s Pololu_Electronics Joaz at RepRapSource.com supplied initial pin definitions and many design improvements. Much inspiration, suggestions, and ideas from Prusajr, Kliment, Maxbots, Rick, and many others in the RepRap community.
2. Sainsmart Mega 2560 R3
Sainsmart Mega2560 R3 is an ATmega2560 as core microcontroller development board itself has 54 groups digital I / O input / output terminal (14 groups do PWM outputs), 16 sets of simulation than the input side, group 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), using the 16 MHz crystal oscillator. With the bootloader, download the program directly via USB without having to go through other external writer. Supply part of the optional USB power, or as an external power using the AC-to-DC adapter and battery. Arduino development IDE interface is based on open-source principles, allows you to free download for use in project work, school teaching, motor control, interactive works.
3. Sainsmart A4988 driver
This product is a carrier board or breakout board for Allegro’s A4988 DMOS Microstepping Driver with Translator and Overcurrent Protection by Pololu; we therefore recommend careful reading of the A4988 datasheet before using this product. This stepper motor driver lets you control one bipolar stepper motor at up to 2 A output current per coil.
4.SainSmart Mechanical Endstop Switch
The mechanical endstop is a simple solution to a simple problem. We want to be able to detect when an X/Y/Z stage has reached its minimum or maximum. Instead of messing with flags or complicated light beam interruptors, we use a mechanical switch. If we place the switch in the path of the stage, then the stage itself will simply close the switch when it moves against it. Other than properly positioning the switch, we do not need to modify the stage at all. If you’re worried about reliability, you can sleep well at night. The switches we use are rated for 1 million operations before failure. Since we only use the switches once per print, that means you’ll be able to do one million prints before having to replace the switch.
5.SainSmart 2004 Smart Yellow LCD Controller With Adapter
This Smart Controller contains a SD-Card reader, an rotary encoder and a 20 Character x 4 Line Yellow LCD display. You can easy connect it to your Ramps board using the “smart adapter” included.
After connecting this panel to your Ramps you don’t need your pc any more, the Smart Controller supplies power for your SD card. Further more all actions like calibration, axes movements can be done by just using the rotary encoder on the Smart Controller. Print your 3D designs without PC, just with a g-code design stored on the SD card.
6.MK2B PCB Heatbed 12V/24V for 3D Printer RAMPS1.4
MK2b is the latest and the best type of heatbed money can buy as of today. 100% compatible with all Prusa and Mendel 3d printer variants.
- 1x SainSmart RAMPS 1.4
- 1x SainSmart Mega 2560 R3
- 1x SainSmart
- 1x SainSmart SD RAMPS Breakout Board
- 5x SainSmart A4988 driver
- 1x USB Cable
- 1x SainSmart RAMPS 1.4 wiring cable
- 6x SainSmart Mechanical Endstop Switch
- 1x SainSmart Cooler Fan for 3D ramps
- 1x SainSmart MK2b
The article is a person named Garrett Kendrick who used sainsmart 3D ptinter board to build his own 3D printer. Check out the process of this project.
I have wanted a 3D printer for many years and done a lot of research. My first 3D printer was an Ord Bot Hadron that I purchased online for over $1500. While I love this printer design and high accuracy, I had a hard time shelling out that amount of money. I’m very happy with the printer, but wanted to find a way to make another (better) version for a much reduced price. That lead me to this build.
I received the SainSmart RAMPS 1.4+Mega 2560 R3 3D Print Kit. This kit includes the Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller, Sainsmart A4988 driver board, 5 Sainsmart RAMPS 1.4, and plenty of interconnecting cables in a nice case. For the price, I was sceptical, but once it arrived (within 2 days of ordering) I was impressed.
I also received the SainSmart 1.75mm green ABS filament.
I found a good deal ($430) on an Ord Bot Hadron mechanical frame with orange accessories on eBay and bought it.
I began printing the printable parts for my new printer with my old printer using the SainSmart green ABS. The parts came out beautifully!
A starfish can reproduce without a partner. The creature loses an arm, and before you know it, you have another starfish. Think of the potential for the species to take over the world, if enough of them were willing to make that initial sacrifice of a limb.
Are 3D printers the starfish of the technology world? That is, can a 3D printer print a 3D printer? And if so, do we need to fear a runaway scenario? An attack of the killer 3D printers, if you will.
I did a little research (emphasis on word little) this morning, to see if I could find any examples of such self-replication; of an incipient master race of mechanical self-maters.
But surely, it must be happening. The hype of 3D printing has the things making just about everything else. We’ve all heard about the gun they can fabricate. And according to AskMen’s highly entertaining but somewhat questionable 3D Printers: 50 Things You Can Make, they can churn out meat, stem cells, jawbones, camera lenses, dishwasher parts, guitars, houses and even a Stradivarius violin.
So I return to my question. Can a 3D printer print a 3D printer? And what if one of these contraptions also started spawning not only more of itself, but starfish as well?
I’m frightened. I think I’m going to print a spaceship and flee to Mars. It might be a bleak existence – there’s no Twitter there that I know of. But at least there won’t be any 3D printers either. Not yet, anyway.
Want to bulid your own 3D printer? What are you waiting for?
Get it at sainsmart right now.
Ramps 1.4 + A4988 + Mega2560 R3 + Endstop + LCD 12864 Kit For RepRap 3D Printer only need $189.99